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Generally, we like meat to e tender and juicy rather than tough and dry. And when the cooking goes on for hgours, the fiber bundles fray away from each other, and even tough meat begins to fall apart...Late 19th century food scientists examined meat doneness, offering temperature/time recommendations according to type of meat, cut, and method of cooking. Meat thermometers (1930s) took the guesswork out of judging doneness. When today we ask for our steak well done, medium or rare, we are repeating a choice that the Renaissance writers revived from Hippocratic writings.Like their 17th century predecessors, early 20th cooking texts warn against rare meat. Black and blue (aka "Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. In 1626 Pierre Duchatel noted the physical reactions to be expected from meat prepared in each of the thre ways '(1)...well-Boiled meat is suitable to the digestion. (2)...those meats that have been medium boiled or medium roasted add moderately to vigor and digestion. Medieval physicists--or physicians--told their contemporaries that cooking added either warmth and moisture or warmth and dryness to their foodstuff that was cooked: the cook chose his cooking method according to the inherent nature of the foodstuff and any need he had to correct this nature. F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere. 86-87) [Medieval France] "Modern physicists tell us that cooking changes the chemical characteristics of a substance.
"A Chicken in Every Pot" airline chicken American bison & buffalo bacon bear beef beef Stroganoff beef Wellington beefalo blood booya brawn Brunswick stew burgoo carpetbag steak Chateaubriand chicken chicken a la King chicken & waffles chicken burgers chicken cacciatora chicken chasseur chicken Cordon Bleu chicken Francese chicken franks chicken fried steak chicken Kiev chicken Marengo chicken nuggets chicken parm chicken salad chicken sandwich (fast food) chicken Tartare chicken tikka masala chicken Vesuvio chicken Wellington Christmas goose city chicken confit coq au vin corn dogs & Pronto Pups corned beef coronation chicken country captain chicken crab croquettes cube steak deep fried turkey deer donkers dormice duck duck a l'orange finger steaks foie gras frankfurters fried chicken goats gravy Guinea fowl ham head cheese horsemeat hot dogs Irish stew Jamaican Jerk jambalaya jerky kebabs King Ranch chicken Kobe beef lamb lamb & mint Lebanon balogna lobster London broil marrow bones meatloaf & meatballs minced meats & hash mincemeat pies mole poblano mutton mutton birds New England Boiled Dinner osso buco pastrami paupiettes Peking duck pemmican picnic ham pigeon pigs in Blankets porcupines pork & applesauce pork & beans pork & sauerkraut pork steak pot roast pulled pork Salisbury steak sausages of Italy scallops shark steaks sheep shrimp Sloppy joes SPAM spiral carved ham squab squirrel steak au Poivre steak Diane steak Tartare Swedish meatballs sweetbreads Swiss steak tempura Tetrazzini Toad-in-the-hole tri-tip steak Turducken Turkey & cranberry sauce turkey & dressing turkey bacon unturkey venison wiener schnitzel zoo animals According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "rare," counterbalancing "done" describing the doneness of meat, descends from the word "rear," meaning imperfectly cooked or underdone. The earliest print reference to the word "rare" relating to meat cookery is circa 1615. They commend the wether almost raw, but pork cooked until it almost melts [that is, until it falls apart].
It was virtually everyone's aspiration to have meat on his table...
154-155) [Ancient Rome] "Already during the last two centuries before Christ, meat began to appear with increasing frequency in the homes of Rome's wealthier citizens...
And its moisture manifests itself if slipperiness; chewing doesn't manage to liberate much juice. As it cooks, meat develops a firmness and resiliance that make it easier to chew. With longer cooking, the juices dry up, and resiliance give way to a dry stiffness.
The meat is chewy yet soft, so that chewing compresses it instead of cutting through it.
29-30) [16th-17th century France] "In 1560 Bruyerin avowed that he had 'more than once' seen '[half-cooked meats devoured so that blood almost flowed from the mouths of those who were eating.