In addition, because of its particular relation with past human presence or past human activity, archaeology uses almost all the dating methods that it shares with the other sciences, but with some particular variations, like the following: Seriation is a relative dating method (see, above, the list of relative dating methods).
An example of a practical application of seriation, is the comparison of the known style of artefacts such as stone tools or pottery.
Dating material drawn from the archaeological record can be made by a direct study of an artifact, or may be deduced by association with materials found in the context the item is drawn from or inferred by its point of discovery in the sequence relative to datable contexts.
Dating is carried out mainly post excavation, but to support good practice, some preliminary dating work called "spot dating" is usually run in tandem with excavation.
It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others.
Nevertheless, the range of time within archaeological dating can be enormous compared to the average lifespan of a singular human being.
Because of the half-lives of 238U, 232nd, and 40K are very long, their concentrations in the object, and hence the radiation dose they provide per year, have remained fairly constant. 74th Court Miami, FL 33155 (305) 667-5167 FAX (305) 663-0964 Biocams International, Inc 13018 SW 120 Street Miami, FL 33186 (305) 663-0886 FAX (305) 631-3434 Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry PO Box 808, L-397 Livermore, CA 94550 Columbia University Geochemistry Department Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Palisades, NY 10964 (914) 365-8505 FAX (914) 365-8155 Desert Research Institute Water Resources Center Radiocarbon Laboratory PO Box 19040 Las Vegas, NV 89132-0040 (702) 895-0416 FAX (702) 895-0427 Geochron Laboratories A division of Krueger Enterprises, Inc.
The most suitable type of sample for thermoluminescence dating is pottery, though the date gotten will be for the last time the object was fired. 711 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 876-3691 FAX (617) 661-0148 Illinois State Geological Survey Isotope Geochemistry Laboratory Geochemistry Section 615 East Peabody Drive Urbana, IL 61820 (217) 333-9083 FAX (217) 244-7004 Los Angeles County Museum of Art 5905 Wilshire Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90036 (213) 857-6161 FAX (213) 931-7347 Purdue University Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory 1396 Physics Building West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (317) 494-6516 FAX (317) 494-0706 Teledyne Isotopes 50 Van Buren Avenue Westwood, NJ 07675 (201) 664-7070 FAX (201) 664-5586 Texas A&M University Department of Oceanography College Station, TX 77843 (409) 845-3651 United States Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Road Menlo Park, CA 94025 (415) 329-4685 FAX (415) 329-4684 United States Geological Survey National Center, 971 Reston, VA 22092 (703) 648-5350 FAX (703) 648-5310 United States Geological Survey, WRD Box 25046, Mail Stop 421 Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 (303) 236-5178 FAX (303) 236-5047 University of Arizona Geosciences Department Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry Tuscon, AZ 85721 (520) 621-8888 FAX (520) 621-2672 University of Arizona NSF-Arizona AMS Laboratory PAS Building 81 Tuscon, AZ 85721 (520) 621-6810 FAX (520) 621-9619 University of California Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics Archaeology Department Los Angeles, CA 90024 (310) 825-4169 FAX (310) 206-3051 University of California Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics Department of Anthropology Riverside, CA 92512 (909) 787-5521 FAX (909) 787-5409 University of California, Irvine Department of Earth Science Radiocarbon Laboratory PSRF 207 Irvine, CA 92717 (909) 725-2116 FAX (909) 725-3256 University of Georgia Center for Applied Isotope Studies 120 Riverbend Road Athens, GA 30602-4702 (706) 542-1395 FAX (706) 542-6106 University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Miami, FL 33149 (305) 361-4100 FAX (305) 361-4112 University of Rochester Nuclear Structure Research Laboratory Rochester, NY 14627 (716) 275-4944 FAX (716) 275-8527 University of Texas at Austin J. Pickle Research Campus Radiocarbon Laboratory Mail Code 77600 Austin, TX 78712 (512) 471-6600 FAX (612) 471-5973 University of Washington Department of Geological Sciences Quaternary Isotope Laboratory AJ-20 Seattle, WA 98195 (206) 685-1735 FAX (206) 543-3836 University of Wisconsin - Madison Center for Climatic Research 1225 West Dayton Street Madison, WI 53706 (608) 262-7328 FAX (608) 262-5964 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Mc Lean Laboratory National Ocean Sciences AMS Facility Woods Hole, MA 002543 (508) 457-2000x2585 FAX (508) 457-2183 Daybreak Nuclear & Medical Systems Inc. Suess effect on biomarkers used to determine sediment provenance from land-use changes.
Thermoluminescence dating: this method is associated with the effect of the high energy radiation emitted as a result of the decay or radioactive impurities.
Several dating methods exist, depending on different criteria and techniques, and some very well known examples of disciplines using such techniques are, for example, history, archaeology, geology, paleontology, astronomy and even forensic science, since in the latter it is sometimes necessary to investigate the moment in the past in which the death of a cadaver occurred.
Relative dating methods are unable to determine the absolute age of an object or event, but can determine the impossibility of a particular event happening before or after another event of which the absolute date is well known.
Historians, for example, know that Shakespeare's play Henry V was not written before 1587 because Shakespeare's primary source for writing his play was the second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, not published until 1587.
Thus, 1587 is the post quem dating of Shakespeare's play Henry V.