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It’s important to remember, however, that what we see as occultism was the scientific establishment of its day, with exactly the same purpose as modern science – curing human ills and increasing knowledge.
From a Western point of view, the decisive moment in the history of hypnosis occurred in the 18th Century (coinciding with the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason).
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Speakers: Kathryn Lukas, Farmhouse Culture; Megali Brecke, Kitchen Witch; Jenna Muller, Full Belly Kitchen; Danielle Shaeffer, New Leaf Community Markets; Merrilee Olson, Preserve Farm Kitchen; Shermain Hardesty, UC Small Farm Program; and Erin Di Caprio, UC Davis Food Science Department. The workshop registration fee includes an organic lunch. Contact Shermain Hardesty, workshop organizer, regarding questions about the workshop content.
This trend continued into the 20th Century, although in some ways, hypnosis became imprisoned by its own respectability, as it became mired in endless academic debate about “state” or “non-state”.
This conundrum – does hypnosis have a real, physical basis, or not? Important shifts were happening elsewhere, however. First of all, the centre of hypnotic gravity moved from Europe to America, where all the most significant breakthroughs of the 20th century took place.
Hypnosis itself hasn’t changed for millennia, but our understanding of it and our ability to control it has changed quite profoundly.
The popular image of the hypnotist as a charismatic and mystical figure can be firmly dated to this time.Surgeons and physicians like John Elliotson and James Esdaille pioneered its use in the medical field, risking their reputation to do so, whilst researchers like James Braid began to peel away the obscuring layers of mesmerism, revealing the physical and biological truths at the heart of the phenomenon.Thanks to their persistence and efforts, by the end of the century hypnosis was accepted as a valid clinical technique, studied and applied in the great universities and hospitals of the day.The work of Franz Mesmer, amongst others, can be seen as both the last flourish of “occult” hypnosis and the first flourish of the “scientific” viewpoint.Mesmer was the first to propose a rational basis for the effects of hypnosis.